2013 September UGC NET in Examination Adult Education, Continuing Education, Andragogy, Non Formal Education: Previous Years Solved Question Paper Along With Answer Keys






1. National Adult Education Programme focused on the age group of
(A) 15-35 years
(B) 15-45 years
(C) 15-60 years
(D) None of the above
Answer: (A)

2. Which one is not a core function of managers?
(A) Assimilating
(B) Directing
(C) Motivating
(D) Leading
Answer: (A)

3. 16th Programme of 20 Point Programme was
(A) Erradication of illiteracy.
(B) Abolition of poverty.
(C) Control on population explosion.
(D) Women empowerment.
Answer: (A)

4. Evaluation of total literacy program is done by
(A) International agency
(B) Friendly agency
(C) Empanelled agency
(D) Nominated agency
Answer: (C)

5. Right to Education Act 2010 is meant for age group of
(A) 5-16 years
(B) 6-14 years
(C) 6-18 years
(D) 5-14 years
Answer: (B)

6. Qualitative data is compared through
(A) T-test
(B) F-test
(C) Chi-test
(D) None of the above
Answer: (C)

7. Director General of NLMA is
(A) Secretary Department of Elementary Eduction and Literacy.
(B) Additional Secretary MHRD.
(C) Joint Secretary MHRD.
(D) None of the above
Answer: (C)

8. Which one of the following agencies is not related with Adult, Continuing Education and Extension?
(A) ICAE
(B) PRATHAM
(C) IUACE
(D) SRC
Answer: (B)

9. Which one of the following is not a method of teaching adult illiterate?
(A) Emphatic
(B) Synthetic
(C) Analytic
(D) Didactic
Answer: (A)

10. Which of the following leaders is related to Adult Education?
(A) Julius Neyrere
(B) Robert Mugabe
(C) Bill Clinton
(D) A.B. Vajpayee
Answer: (A)






11. Evaluation is essential for
(A) Improving the work.
(B) Judging the value of methods or devices used.
(C) Choosing the best tools in the teaching plan.
(D) All of the above.
Answer: (D)

12. Which of the following amendment is related to Panchayat Raj?
(A) 61st & 62nd Constitutional Amendment
(B) 64th & 65th Constitutional Amendment.
(C) 73rd & 74th Constitutional Amendment.
(D) None of the above
Answer: (C)

13. In extension evaluation progress can be measured at
(A) two levels
(B) three levels
(C) four levels
(D) five levels
Answer: (B)

14. Which of the following is an informal rural institution?
(A) Village panchayat
(B) Family
(C) Youth club
(D) None of these
Answer: (B)

15. IRDP stands for
(A) Integrated Rural Development Programme.
(B) Indian Rural Development Programme.
(C) Integrated Rural Development Plan.
(D) Indian Rural Development Plan.
Answer: (A)

16. HIV Stands for
(A) Human Immuno Virus
(B) Human Immuno Deficiency Virus
(C) Human Internal Virus
(D) None of the above
Answer: (B)

17. Policy statement of UGC regarding extension in Higher Education was given in the year
(A) 1970
(B) 1975
(C) 1977
(D) 1980
Answer: (C)

18. Equality of opportunities in education implies that each student
(A) Passes examination with first division.
(B) Gets equal number of books and stationary.
(C) Gets facilities according to his abilities and interest.
(D) Gets facilities according to his potential and level in the society.
Answer: (C)

19. Research means
(A) Searching again and again.
(B) Finding solution to any problem.
(C) Scientific approach to new truth.
(D) All of the above.
Answer: (D)

20. Which of the following would not tend to increase the population of a country?
(A) An increase in birth rate.
(B) A fall in the death rate.
(C) An increase in average age of marriage.
(D) An increase in immigration.
Answer: (C)






21. The purpose of extension evaluation is
(a) to identify the needs and interests of participants.
(b) to determine the degree of result achieved.
(c) to provide the evidence to the community of the value of the extension programme.
(d) to measure the effectiveness of different extension methods.
Codes:
(A) only (a), (b) and (c) are correct.
(B) (a) is wrong, but (b), (c) and (d) are correct.
(C) (a) and (b) are correct, but (c) and (d) are wrong.
(D) All of the above are correct.
Answer: (B)

22. Which of the following are not included in the dimension of population education?
(a) Population situation
(b) Economic development
(c) Quality of life
(d) Moral values
Codes:
(A) (a) and (b)
(B) (b) and (c)
(C) (b) and (d)
(D) (a) and (d)
Answer: (C)

23. Environment Education is helpful in
(a) disseminating informations regarding environment.
(b) developing positive attitude towards environment.
(c) increasing active participation in environment conservation.
(d) developing positive attitude towards gender equality.
Code:
(A) (a), (b) and (d) are correct.
(B) (b), (c) and (d) are correct.
(C) (a), (c) and (d) are correct.
(D) (a), (b) and (c) are correct.
Answer: (D)

24. Which of the following pairs are wrong?
(a) Vitamin-C – Orange
(b) Vitamin-A – Egg
(c) Iron – Diarrhoea
(d) ORS – Anemia
Codes:
(A) (a) and (b)
(B) (a), (b) and (c)
(C) (c) and (d)
(D) (b) and (c)
Answer: (C)

25. Which of the following pairs are correct?
(a) World Blood Donation Day – 5th June
(b) World Nature Day – 3rd October
(c) Girl Child Day – 24th January
(d) World Environment Day – 14th June
Codes:
(A) (a), (b) and (c)
(B) (b), (c) and (d)
(C) (a) and (b)
(D) (b) and (c)
Answer: (D)

26. Sampling methods are
i. Purposive
ii. Quota
iii. Irrational
iv. Area
Codes:
(A) i, ii and iii
(B) i, iii and iv
(C) ii, iii and iv
(D) i, ii and iv
Answer: (D)

27. The tools of measurements are
i. Contacts
ii. Value scales
iii. Attitude scales
iv. Opinion polls
Codes:
(A) i, ii and iii
(B) ii, iii and iv
(C) i, iii and iv
(D) None of the above
Answer: (B)

28. Steps of programme planning are
i. Collection of facts
ii. Execution of plan
iii. Opinion formation
iv. Evaluation of progress
Codes:
(A) i, ii and iii
(B) ii, iii and iv
(C) i, iii and iv
(D) i, ii and iv
Answer: (D)

29. HIV-AIDs tests include
i. Elisa
ii. Mohr
iii. PCR
iv. Western Blot
Codes:
(A) i, ii and iii
(B) ii, iii and iv
(C) i, ii and iv
(D) i, iii and iv
Answer: (D)

30. Elements of curriculum are
i. Events
ii. Contents
iii. Consent
iv. Context
Codes:
(A) i, ii and iii
(B) ii, iii and iv
(C) i, iii and iv
(D) i, ii and iv
Answer: (C)






31. Types of leadership are
i. Benevolent
ii. Participation
iii. Authoritarian
iv. Predatory
Codes:
(A) i, ii and iii
(B) i, iii and iv
(C) i, ii and iv
(D) ii, iii and iv
Answer: (A)

32. Assertion (A): The key to job satisfaction and high performance lies in job enrichment.
Reason (R): Grape vine is not a way of communication.
Codes:
(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).
(B) Both (A) and (R) are correct, but (R) is not a correct explanation of (A).
(C) (A) is true and (R) is false.
(D) (A) is false and (R) is true.
Answer: (C)

33. Assertion (A): Evaluation is an integral part of the management process.
Reason (R): Social audit does not fulfil the promises it holds.
Codes:
(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).
(B) Both (A) and (R) are correct, but (R) is not a correct explanation of (A).
(C) (A) is false and (R) is true.
(D) (A) is true and (R) is false.
Answer: (D)

34. Assertion (A): Rights of senior citizens are violated both within and outside family.
Reason (R): Law on Maintenance and welfare of senior citizens does not provide for any such safety and security.
Codes:
(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation.
(B) Both (A) and (R) are correct, but (R) is not a correct explanation.
(C) (A) is true and (R) is false.
(D) (A) is false and (R) is true.
Answer: (C)

35. Assertion (A): The link amongst gender, poverty, development and environment is not established.
Reason (R): An effort to translate the spirit of sustainable development can provide answers to several problems of development.
Codes:
(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation.
(B) Both (A) and (R) are correct, but (R) is not a correct explanation.
(C) (A) is true and (R) is false.
(D) (A) is false and (R) is true.
Answer: (D)

36. Assertion (A): Universalization of primary and secondary education could not be achieved besides implementation of plethora of programmes.www.netugc.in
Reason (R): Right to Education Act (2010) is meant for age group 6-14 years.
Codes:
(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation.
(B) Both (A) and (R) are correct, but (R) is not a correct explanation.
(C) (A) is true and (R) is false.
(D) (A) is false and (R) is true.
Answer: (A)

37. Assertion (A): Focussed group discussion is a good tool in qualitative research.
Reason (R): Experimental designs are a method of quantitative research.
Codes:
(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation.
(B) Both (A) and (R) are correct, but (R) is not a correct explanation.
(C) (A) is true and (R) is false.
(D) (A) is false and (R) is true.
Answer: (B)

38. Assertion (A): There is a gap between number of skilled persons required and available.
Reason (R): National Skill Development Operation has started a massive skilling programme.
Codes:
(A) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation.
(B) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not a correct explanation.
(C) (A) is true and (R) is false.
(D) (A) is false and (R) is true.
Answer: (A)

39. Assertion (A): Rapid growth in population is the indicator of low level of development in the society.
Reason (R): High birth rate is related to illiteracy and poverty in the society.
Codes:
(A) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).
(B) Both (A) and (R) are correct, but (R) is not a correct explanation of (A)
(C) (A) is true and (R) is false.
(D) (A) is false and (R) is true.
Answer: (A)

40. Assertion (A): Development of people is not more important than the other economic functions.
Reason (R): We cannot build a high quality economy only on the basis of physical resources.
Codes:
(A) Both (A) and (R) are true.
(B) Both (A) and (R) are false.
(C) (A) is false, but (R) is true and (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).
(D) (A) is false and (R) is true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).
Answer: (C)






41. Assertion (A): Developing countries with higher population growth rates, are often viewed as the source of an emerging environmental crisis.
Reason (R): If current rates of deforestration continue in South East Asia. it would take 15 years for the region to become completely stripped of its forest.
Codes:
(A) (A) is true, but (R) is false.
(B) (A) is false, but (R) is true.
(C) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).
(D) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).
Answer: (C)

42. Assertion (A): National Literacy Mission was launched in 1988.
Reason (R): Techno pedagogy was included in Nation wide strategy of National Literacy Mission.
Codes:
(A) (A) is true, but (R) is false.
(B) (A) is false, but (R) is true.
(C) Both (A) and (R) are true.
(D) Both (A) and (R) are false.
Answer: (C)

43. Assertion (A): Literacy has positive co-relation with population control.
Reason (R): As literacy increases, birth rate and infant mortality rate decreases.
Codes:
(A) (A) is true, but (R) is false.
(B) (A) is false, but (R) is true.
(C) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).
(D) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)
Answer: (D)

44. Assertion (A): Primary Education is the foundation of our entire education system.
Reason (R): The right to free and compulsory education for children between age group of 6 to 14 has been inserted in Indian Constitution.
Codes:
(A) (A) is true, but (R) is false.
(B) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).
(C) (A) is false, but (R) is true.
(D) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).
Answer: (B)

45. Assertion (A): Adoption of innovation is not a mental process.
Reason (R): Decision making is one of the important stage in adoption of innovation.
Codes:
(A) (A) is true, but (R) is false.
(B) (A) is false, but (R) is true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).
(C) Both (A) and (R) are true.
(D) (A) is false, but (R) is true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).
Answer: (B)

46. Arrange the following activities of TLC in order in which they were implemented. Use code given below:
I. Survey
II. Evaluation
III. Environment building
IV. Monitoring
Codes:
(A) I III IV II
(B) I IV III II
(C) III I IV II
(D) II IV III I
Answer: (A)

47. Arrange the following days in the order in which they are celebrated from January to December.
I. International Woman Day
II. Human Right Day
III. Girl Child Day
IV. International Literacy Day
Codes:
(A) I III IV II
(B) III I IV II
(C) IV II III I
(D) I II III IV
Answer: (B)

48. Arrange the following in the order in which they appeared. Use the code given below:
I. Adult Education
II. Continuing Education
III. Social Education
IV. Life Long Education
Codes:
(A) I III II IV
(B) III I II IV
(C) III II I IV
(D) I IV III II
Answer: (B)

49. Arrange the following states in order to their population ranking (from lower to higher) as per provisional figures of 2011 census.
I. Bihar
II. Uttar Pradesh
III. West Bengal
IV. Maharashtra
Codes:
(A) III I IV II
(B) I II III IV
(C) II III I IV
(D) II IV I III
Answer: (A)

50. Arrange the following task of extension education in the order in which they are being executed:
I. Planning
II. Evaluation
III. Reconsideration
IV. Execution of plan
Codes:
(A) I IV II III
(B) I II III IV
(C) I III II IV
(D) I IV III II
Answer: (A)

51. Arrange the following institutions in order they were instituted:
I. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)
II. United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA)
III. World Health Organisation (WHO)
IV. International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD)
Codes:
(A) III II I IV
(B) II III I IV
(C) I II III IV
(D) IV III II I
Answer: (A)

52. Arrange the following in decreasing order of ‘Literacy’ rate states in India according to the census of India 200:
(A) Kerala, Nagaland, Mizoram, Goa.
(B) Kerala, Mizoram, Goa, Nagaland.
(C) Kerala, Goa, Nagaland, Mizoram.
(D) Kerala, Mizoram, Nagaland, Goa.
Answer: (B)

53. Arrange the following programme in order of their implementation and answer using the codes:
(i) NLM
(ii) NAEP
(iii) Sakshar Bharat
(iv) Right to Education
Codes:
(A) (iv), (iii), (ii), (i)
(B) (ii), (iii), (i), (iv)
(C) (ii), (i), (iii), (iv)
(D) (ii), (iv), (i), (iii)
Answer: (C)

54. Arrange the following stages of communication in order of their placement in the process using codes:
(i) Encoding
(ii) Environment
(iii) Message
(iv) Recipient
Codes:
(A) (iii), (i), (ii), (iv)
(B) (iii), (ii), (i), (iv)
(C) (iii), (ii), (iv), (i)
(D) (iii), (iv), (ii), (i)
Answer: (A)

55. Arrange the following events in order of their happening.
(i) Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
(ii) New Policy on Education.
(iii) Hamburg Declaration.
(iv) Dakar Summit
Codes:
(A) (i), (ii), (iii), (iv)
(B) (i), (iv), (iii), (ii)
(C) (i), (ii), (iv), (iii)
(D) (i), (iii), (ii), (iv)
Answer: (A)

56. Arrange the stages of research in order of their occurance:
(i) Methodology
(ii) Findings
(iii) Report writing
(iv) Analysis
Codes:
(A) (ii), (i), (iv), (iii)
(B) (i), (iii), (iv), (ii)
(C) (i), (ii), (iv), (iii)
(D) (i), (iv), (ii), (iii)
Answer: (D)

57. Arrange the following functions of management in order of their performance.
(i) Organising
(ii) Motivating
(iii) Controlling
(iv) Planning
Codes:
(A) (iv), (i), (ii), (iii)
(B) (iv), (ii), (i), (iii)
(C) (i), (ii), (iii), (iv)
(D) (i), (iii), (iv), (ii)
Answer: (A)

58. Match the following:
List – I                                                                                                List - II
(a) Environment protection                                                                 i. Pratham
(b) Literacy promotion                                                                        ii. NBA
(c) Sanitation                                                                                       iii. BGVS
(d) Basic Education                                                                            iv. Sulabh International
Codes:
    (a) (b) (c) (d)
(A) ii iv i iii
(B) ii iii iv i
(C) ii i iii iv
(D) ii iii i i
Answer: (B)

59. Match the items of List-I with that of List-II and answer the question according to the codes given below the lists.
List – I                                                                                                List - II
(a) Internet                                                                                          i. Motivation
(b) Basic needs                                                                                    ii. Training
(c) Short courses                                                                                 iii. Communication
(d) Disturbance                                                                                   iv. Learning
Codes:
    (a) (b) (c) (d)
(A) iv ii i iii
(B) iv i iii ii
(C) iv iii ii i
(D) iv i ii iii
Answer: (D)

60. Match the item of List-I with that of List-II and answer the question according to the code given below the list:
List – I                                                                        List - II
(a) SEWA                                                                   i. University Continuing Education
(b) IUACE                                                                  ii. Population Education
(c) IAEA                                                                     iii. Self Help Group
(d) UNFP                                                                    iv. Adult Education
Codes:
(a)        (b)        (c)        (d)
(A)       iv         i           ii          iii
(B)       iv         iii         i          ii
(C)       iii        i          iv         ii
(D)       iii         iv         ii          i
Answer: (C)

61. Match the item under List-I with that of List-II and answer the question according to the codes given below the list:
List – I                                                                        List - II
(a) JSN                                                                        i. Primary Education
(b) LSK                                                                       ii. Adult Literacy
(c) VEC                                                                       iii. Mahila Samakhya
(d) Sathin                                                                    iv. Sakshar Bharat
Codes:
(a)        (b)        (c)        (d)
(A)       i          iv         ii          iii
(B)       ii          iv         i           iii
(C)       iv         i           ii          iii
(D)       ii          iv         iii         i
Answer: (B)

62. Match the List-I with that of List-II and answer the question according to the codes given below the list:
List – I                                                                        List - II
(a) Sriniketan                                                               i. Uttar Pradesh
(b) Literacy House                                                      ii. Delhi
(c) DAE                                                                      iii. Bihar
(d) ADRI                                                                    iv. West Bengal
Codes:
(a)        (b)       (c)       (d)
(A)       iv         i           ii          iii
(B)       iv         ii          iii         i
(C)       iv         iii         i          ii
(D)       ii          iv         iii         i
Answer: (A)

63. Match the item under List-I with that of List-II and answer the question according to the codes given below the list:
List – I                                                                        List - II
(a) My School                                                             i. Paulo Friere
(b) Nai Taleem                                                            ii. Aurobindo Ghose
(c) Spiritual Education                                                iii. M.K. Gandhi
(d) Praxis                                                                     iv. Rabindra Nath Thakur
Codes:
(a)        (b)        (c)        (d)
(A)       i           ii          iii         iv
(B)       iv         iii         i           ii
(C)       iv         i           ii          iii
(D)       iv         iii         ii          i
Answer: (D)

64. Match the item given under List-I with those in List-II.www.netugc.in
List – I                                                                                    List - II
I           District where first TLC launched                                          1. Kerala
II         State that has larger population size                                       2. West Bengal
III        State that has highest literacy rate                                          3. Kottayam
IV        State that has highest density of population                           4. Uttar Pradesh
Codes:
I           II         III        IV
(A)       3          2          4          1
(B)       2          3          4          1
(C)       3          4          1          2
(D)       4          3          2          1
Answer: (C)

65. Match the item given under List-I (Task) with those in List-II (Associated with) and select the correct answer using the codes given below:
List – I                        List - II
I           Evaluation                   1. Energize and direct behavioural patterns organized around a goal.
II         Planning                      2. Periodical Supervision
III        Motivation                  3. Help us to determine progress with any activity.
IV        Monitoring                  4. In designing a course of action to achieve ends.
Codes:
I           II         III        IV
(A)       3          1          4          2
(B)       1          3          2          4
(C)       3          4          1          2
(D)       2          3          4          1
Answer: (C)

66. Match the items given under List-I
(University based programmes) with those in List-II (year of launching):
List – I                                                                        List - II
I           Area Development Approach                                     1. 1988
II         NAEP                                                                                     2. 1984
III        Population Education Programme                              3. 1982
IV        Continuing Education Programme                             4. 1978
Codes:
      I II III IV
(A) 1 4 2 3
(B) 4 3 2 1
(C) 1 4 3 2
(D) 1 2 3 4
Answer: (A)

67. Match the items given under List-I (Programme) with those in List-II (year of launching):
List – I                                                                                    List - II
I           Mahila Samridhi Yojna                                                           1. 2002
II         Community Development Programme                                   2. 1952
III        Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan                                                           3. 2009
IV        Sakshar Bharat Abhiyan                                                         4. 1997
Codes:
     I II III IV
(A) 1 2 3 4
(B) 4 2 1 3
(C) 3 1 4 2
(D) 4 2 3 1
Answer: (B)

68. Match the items given under List-I with those in List-II and select the right answer using the codes given below the items:
List – I                                                                                                List - II
I           Audio                                                                                      1. Television
II         Visual                                                                                      2. Radio
III        Audio-visual                                                                           3. Internet
IV        Multimedia                                                                              4. Silent Movie
Codes:
     I II III IV
(A) 1 2 3 4
(B) 2 4 1 3
(C) 3 4 1 2
(D) 4 3 2 1
Answer: (B)

69. Match the following List-I with the List-II.
List – I                                                                        List - II
I           Communication                                                           1. Capacity building
II         Planning                                                                      2. Adoption
III        Innovation                                                                   3. Determination of objectives
IV        Training                                                                       4. Channel
Codes:
      I II III IV
(A) 4 3 2 1
(B) 4 3 1 2
(C) 3 4 1 2
(D) 1 2 3 4
Answer: (A)

70. Match the following List-I with the List-II.
List – I                                                            List - II
I           Population Education                                                1. Functional Literacy
II         Environment Education                                  2. Equivalence Programme
III        Continuing Education                                     3. To improve quality of life
IV        Adult Education                                             4. Sensitization towards environment
Codes:
     I II III IV
(A) 3 4 1 2
(B) 4 3 2 1
(C) 3 4 2 1
(D) 1 2 3 4

Read the passage below and answer the questions (71-75) based on your understandings of the passage.
Globalisation is present everywhere in our lives. It is part of casual conversations, political discourse, economic debates and cultural deliberations. But as for concepts like social stratification, knowledge gap, winners and losers in a knowledge based society, users and losers in digital space, Europe has tight lips.
We are reluctant and embarrassed to discuss poverty. It is easier to place such misfortunate developments in the third world and avoid explanation of our own touchy problems. When in the late 1950’s, a stormy debate on equal and unequal education opportunities unfolded very few people expected this problem to augment and become a burning social issue during the first decades of the 21st century. In the area of education sciences, adult educators are those who give a lot of attention to inequalities and social exclusion, especially in the context of access to learning opportunities. They are particularly sensitive to this problem for a number of reasons. First, all systemic errors are acutely visible in the form of individual deficits which are revealed when graduates of different schools take up new social roles as job seekers or prospective employees, and many are not able to find employment.
Across Europe, adult education in celebrated as a remedy to all social problems, including marginalisation, exclusion and poverty. It is expected to counteract social polarisation, but it is polarised as strongly as the society. The belief that social deprivation may occur only ‘be tone’ or ‘on the side of’ adult learning was upheld for decades but it turned out to be deceptive.
Answer: (C)

71. Author has questioned a dominant perception in Europe which refers to
(A) Avoidance of critical issues that has emerged there.
(B) Treating the problems as outlandish.
(C) None of these are true.
(D) Both (A) and (B) are true.
Answer: (D)

72. Inequalities and exclusion are better understood by
(A) None
(B) Adult Educators
(C) Modern graduates
(D) Unemployed youths
Answer: (B)

73. According to author which problem resurfaced in 21st Century in Europe.
(A) Social tensions
(B) Unequal education opportunities
(C) Poverty
(D) Unemployment
Answer: (B)

74. What was the wide spread understanding about Adult Education?www.netugc.in
(A) It does not provide answer to the social problem.
(B) It leads to social polarisation.
(C) It reduces marginalization.
(D) None of the above.
Answer: (D)

75. Author is advancing an argument in favour of
(A) Globalisation
(B) Marginalisation
(C) Deprivation
(D) None of the above
Answer: (D)